Expression Language#

The Expression Language is a domain-specific language (DSL) that allows for the evaluation of expressions with a syntax similar to Python. It provides a restricted subset of Python’s features to ensure safe and controlled execution.


The Expression Language supports the following syntax elements:


  • Numbers: Integer and floating-point numbers are supported.

    • Examples: 42, 3.14

  • Strings: String literals are enclosed in double quotes (").

    • Example: "Hello, world!"

  • Booleans: Boolean values are represented by True and False.

  • None: The None value represents the absence of a value.

Arithmetic Operations#

  • Addition: +

    • Example: 1 + 2

  • Subtraction: -

    • Example: 5 - 3

  • Multiplication: *

    • Example: 2 * 4

  • Division: /

    • Example: 10 / 2

  • Exponentiation: ^ or **

    • Example: 2^3 or 2**3

  • Bitwise XOR: ^

    • Example: 5 ^ 3

Comparison Operations#

  • Equal to: ==

    • Example: x == y

  • Less than: <

    • Example: x < y

  • Less than or equal to: <=

    • Example: x <= y

  • Greater than: >

    • Example: x > y

  • Greater than or equal to: >=

    • Example: x >= y

Logical Operations#

  • Logical AND: and

    • Example: x and y

  • Logical OR: or

    • Example: x or y

  • Logical NOT: not

    • Example: not x


Variables can be referenced by their names. They are resolved from the context in which the expression is evaluated.

  • Example: x + y

If a variable is not defined or has a value of None, it will be treated as None in the expression.


The Expression Language provides a set of built-in functions:

  • max(arg1, arg2, ...): Returns the maximum value among the arguments.

  • min(arg1, arg2, ...): Returns the minimum value among the arguments.

  • len(arg): Returns the length of a string or a list.

  • str(arg): Converts the argument to a string.

  • strlen(arg): Returns the length of a string.

  • case(cond1, val1, cond2, val2, ..., default): Evaluates the conditions in order and returns the value associated with the first true condition. If no condition is true, the default value is returned.

Attribute Access#

Attributes of objects can be accessed using dot notation (object.attribute). Attribute access can be chained to navigate through nested objects.

  • Example:, person.address.street

When an attribute is accessed on a list, the operation is distributed over the elements of the list.

  • Example: (returns a list of names)

Conditional Expressions#

Conditional expressions allow for the evaluation of different expressions based on a condition.

  • Syntax: <expression_if_true> if <condition> else <expression_if_false>

  • Example: "Positive" if x > 0 else "Non-positive"

Operator Precedence#

The Expression Language follows the same operator precedence rules as Python. Parentheses can be used to override the default precedence order.


The Expression Language has the following limitations:

  • It does not support control flow statements such as loops or function definitions.

  • It does not allow the use of certain potentially unsafe operations, such as __import__.

  • It is designed for simple expressions and does not provide the full range of features available in Python.


Here are a few examples of expressions in the Expression Language:

  • 1 + 2 * 3: Evaluates to 7.

  • "Hello, " + "world!": Evaluates to "Hello, world!".

  • x > 10 and y < 5: Evaluates to True if x is greater than 10 and y is less than 5, otherwise False.

  • max(x, y, z): Returns the maximum value among x, y, and z.

  • Returns the value of the name attribute of the person object.

  • "Positive" if x > 0 else "Non-positive": Returns "Positive" if x is greater than 0, otherwise returns "Non-positive".

This documentation provides an overview of the Expression Language and its supported features. It is independent of any specific implementation or programming language.